Subtitles for Laboratory Aids In Diagnosis - Part II

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Michigan dentistry podcast
series promoting oral health
miss will include first volley
complete blood count the
complete blood count
consists of a platelet the
and the differential count white
blood cells
in the modern day laboratory
many be terminations are done by
or by means of electronic
devices the red cell count and
the white cell count are done
in many instances on the colour
counter an electronic device for
making this kind of calm
the colour Connor determines the
number and size of particles
suspended in an elector
electrically conductive liquid
cell count is done by forcing a
suspension of cells
in electrolyte to flow through a
small aperture having in amherst
lecture on
on each side as a cell
on passes through the aperture
it changes the resistance
between the electrodes miss
produces a voltage Paul so short
miss will a change in magnitude
depending on the size of the
syriza pollsters is then
electronically scaled
encountered as we watch the
technician in the laboratory
we see that she is preparing a
specimen of blood
for the Calder counter in order
space out the particles for more
accurate counting
as they pass through the
aperture and between the
the delusion a blood is required
she is measuring a
out a quantity of blood in the
five bet
and introducing it into an
isotonic solution
this will retain the cells in
good condition
she will further dilute
the specimen in order to do the
red blood cell count a fresh
pipette is used to taking out
a different via my blood she
will now
clean out the machine with her
distilled water
make sure that there are no
particles residual in the
aperture or between at the
is setting machine for the
impulse that
will detect the red blood cells
now she is introducing these
batsmen into the system
there is an external servers a
which affects a column mercury
this in turn draws in an exact
I love the material the
and working on a switching
devices the mercury passes
to switches the machine is
turned on an of counting the
cells within a given volume
the white blood cell count is
done by
lacing the red blood cells as
you see here
materials introduced which will
destroy the red cells
the color changes changes
obvious now all that remains
are the white blood cells the
machine is reset
for an impulse the that they're
a threshold that will
detect a larger particle as it
passes through the aperture
clean again and the material is
introduced into the system
once again the count begins as
the mercury passes the switch
and at the end of the count the
reading is taken from the
dials on the machine
the matter cat measures the
proportion of cells in blood
to the plasma the matter kurt is
determined by centrifuging is
best man a blood
and add layers out into three
layers is demonstrated here on
our graphic representation
the top player is the plasma
makes up somewhere in the
neighborhood of 55 percent
other toons Bassman shown here
in yellow
below that the fight cell layer
is depicted in green
and still below that they
red blood cells are shown in
a maroon collared layer the
normal him at a good level
varies from 42
40 seven-percent in general
we're going to demonstrate the
capillary method
a be the matter could be
our technician well first the
mall i mix the specimen are
anti-coagulant it blood to get a
good dispersion themselves
then she will draw some other
blood into a capillary to
capillary action draws blood
well up into the tube and a
enough is taken into the two to
allow a an accurate
determination and the layering
affect following
the centrifuge tipper the tumors
sealed with they bit of clay
and the upper into the two the
remains open and cars to allow
atmospheric pressure to adjust
as the
centrifuging takes place as best
man is placed into the
machine and covered it will be
and a speeder 12,000 rpm
for a period of three minutes
at the end of three minutes
the sliding percentage scale is
adjusted to the top and the
bottom of the blood
and as you can see here it has
now where it into the plasma
a small Buffy and the
a small Buffy layer and the
red cell where at the bottom as
we read on the scale
it shows that the matter could
for this press minute but
is in the neighborhood a 47
percent is prepared to
by using a rate stain on the
blood film that was collected
from the
finger puncture first volley
stain is added to the to cover
the stain is a
allowed to flow over the
complete surface have the slide
its left in place for
one minute and then a buffering
is added to the staining
in this manner the acidic stain
and the
neutrophilic stain well
be accomplished
the buffering solution is left
in place for a period of three
then the surface is above this
line are washed
with distilled water
there then set aside and
allowed to dry
after they aren't completely
dried they will be mounted on a
glass slide
and examined under the oil
immersion Lanza the microscope
and in this during this process
various cells will be counted
the new travails
make up the largest number the
largest percentage of the white
blood cells
we see here under the microscope
an excellent example love
polymarker marker nuclear new to
Phil's these are
members are the granulocytic
series derived from
red bone marrow and of course
constitute the body's first line
and cellular defense
the left besides makeup from 22
40 percent above the
differential count of white
lymphocyte shown here be seen as
a small mononuclear cell
the small amount light blue
cytoplasm around the
darker blue nucleus functional
the lymphocyte
is to produce antibodies is
usually found late
in the inflammatory process
under microscopic section
monocytes make up four to eight
percent the total white blood
cell count
there a large cell with a single
ovulated nucleus
they're seen late in
their function is to clean up
the inflammatory site
they are known as the
his senate bills are members are
the granular City
series derived from red bone
marrow they have houston
affiliate staining granules in
the cytoplasm
their function is somewhat
although they're seen an
increase numbers during an
manifestations and during
parasitic infestations
baeza Phil is the third member
of the
granulocytic series it
contains baeza filling staining
granules in its cytoplasm
its function is rather obscure
it's thought that it may produce
hepburn at the site of
a platelet estimate is done on
the basis so the
number clumps a plate lets it
appear in each
oil immersion feel love the
microscope a normal numbers
would be five or more clumps a
platelets per feel
the play let's have the numerous
important functions
they are important in the
initiation of the choir lation
they contribute to the
retraction and the clock and
they have
a good deal to do with capillary
integrity follow the red cell
count is done on the colour
the red cells are examined for
color size and shape during the
process of examining the stains
the role of platelets Inc lot
retraction was
mention earlier this can be
tested by
incubating freshly drawn blood
at 37 degrees centigrade
for a period of 24 hours the
specimen on the
laughed shows freshly drawn
while the spaceman on the right
shows the
blood after it has stood for 24
it the retraction of the cloud
away from the sides in the
is visible
there are two coagulation
studies %uh ventures to the
the Protomen time in the partial
thromboplastin time
the prothrombin time measures
the extrinsic clotting mechanism
and its ingredients while the
partial thromboplastin time
measures the activity and the
intrinsic clotting mechanism the
instrument used a in our
laboratory is the FYROM
interposition coagulation timer
this is Anna electromechanical
instrument designed to measure
coagulation properties a plasma
or serum for diagnostic use and
for and acquire human therapy
it can be employed for most to
be quite the elation determined
it determinations now being used
our technician will demonstrate
the use of the instrument
the automatic by Pat is being
and a certain amount every agent
will be drawn into the pipette
this is placed into one of the
preheated fibro cups on the
then the patient's
plasma is drawn into a clean
pipe at
this in turn is added to the
reagent and automatically
the machine begins to mix and to
count the time
until it begins to sense a clock
the formation of a clock changes
the resistance across the two
probing electrodes and at the
end of the
clotting period the timer stops
the timing is measured in
seconds intensive seconds
as shown here the timing on this
one was
22 point 0 seconds
I believe that was twenty 2.5
at any rate it represents an
or an ly long test
or an abnormally long test
following this
they technician wipes of the
electrodes and the instrument is
ready then for
the next test the same
machinery in the same settings
are used a
for the partial thromboplastin
time as for the
froth Rahman time three agents
however are different for these
different determination
the instrument used to do the
hemoglobin determination as the
summers and photoelectric
colorimeter and using this
whole blood is added to a
cyanide compound converting it
to cyano met hemoglobin
our technician will now
demonstrate the use of the
first of all the is
first of all the instrument is
calibrated by using a blank
made up bar the reagent in a
test do
calibration is done by setting
central dial at midpoint
central dial at the midpoint
while the calibrated dialers on
0 the
unknown specimen is then placed
in front of the photoelectric
and the calibrated dialers turn
then until
the central dial is brought back
to the midpoint
the final reading is taken up
taken from the calibrated dial
and a by multiplying this with a
factor for conversion to grams
per 100 cc's in whole blood
the hemoglobin determination is
bacteriology studies are used
primarily for the identification
organisms to determine the
organisms and to determine the
effectiveness have antibiotics
a technique which is also
referred to as antibiotic
sensitivity testing
the Gram stain is used for
identification ever specimen
submitted on a glass slide
for this staining technique
gentian violet
grams I and then alcohol
an Safran an are used in turn
our technician is going to
demonstrate the
Gram staining technique first of
all she will apply
gentian violet to the slide
for 30 sec
following this to she will
remove the
excess stain rents
with water and go to the
additional the next reagent
grams hi Adam
this solution is left in place
for thirty-seconds also
then your again the access
staining material is rinsed of
then they
slide is cleared with her
and again washed
and finally the Safran and
solution is applied
for the final stain
again this is
left in place for thirty seconds
at the end of that period the
is washed off the slide is
and dried and is then
ready for viewing under the
microscope star technician will
demonstrate the processing
the swabbed that was submitted
for culturing
after flaming the two she
removes that's why I'm
and smears the surface survey
blood auger plate in order to
distribute the material more
she'll take a wire loop which
has been previously sterilized
will further distribute to
the material around the surface
irv place
the plate is then incubated for
a period of 24 to 48 hours
on one of these played sir if
multiple played sir done
antibiotic to desks can be
placed in the zone of inhibition
can be determined after 24 hours
on a plane played
to the colonies organisms can be
are removed for Gram staining
and further
examination microscopically as
an example of the
antibiotic sensitivity tests
here we have
to Malta desks that are
impregnated with
eight different antibiotics and
they show varying
as owns an innovation you'll
notice the one on the right mark
P is penicillin these are both
is penicillin these are both
infections shown on know these
the one that is being shown now
is a
sensitive to penicillin as
demonstrated by the clear zone
around the plate
are around the desk and in this
the staff is insensitive
or resistant to the action
penicillin since there is no
zone of inhibition showing
he's dark and Italian McCann's
can be grown a
out on a sob roads glucose auger
this is a
good example have Candida
colonies growing on a petri dish
plated out was Saab roads
glucose agar
the other played to
that we see here is a from a
throat to
culture and shows a distribution
organisms staff streptococci
and use the macro- scopic
portion appear in Alice's
simple qualitative biochemical
tests using commercially
prepared test strips
our technician is going to
demonstrate first
do you serve the lead test tape
which is used for good cause
determination in the urn
usually this is done on a random
urine sample
in a diabetic suspect she will
remove a portion of the tape
from the container
and inserted into the
test tube containing yearned
from the
suspected patient after brief
the color changes observed on
the test day
and it is compared to the color
on the test tape container as we
can see from our comparisons
the test de Pez change color
and approximates the Mon a good
cause in the earned somewhere
they won close in two-plus
levels lab sticks are
manufactured by
the games company thing can be
used for multiple testing
how they earn including
qualitative determinations for
Billy Ruben key tones glucose
and protein our technician has
placed a test
or the labs dick in the urine
exposing it to you known
diabetics here in
and is now comparing the glucose
level on the
lamb steak with the color coding
on the side of the jock
you can see there are multiple
color coatings here which will
the five different areas that
are being tested by the strip
the clinical laboratory has many
applications in diagnosis
the data should familiarize
himself thoroughly with the
collection and the specimen for
laboratory analysis
any should familiarize himself
also with the processing of the
specimen in the laboratory
so that he can interpret
laboratory error as a
when a laboratory report does
not match the clinical behaviour
the dizzy
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